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What noun affix is being used in "pangungusap" (engl: "sentence"

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Author Photo by: simpleauthority
Jul 20 2020, 12:29am CST ~ 2 weeks, 1 day ago. 
What noun affix is being used in "pangungusap" (engl: "sentence")?
 
I know that there are two ways to use "pang" at the beginning of a root to create nouns:
1. simply prefixing pang; making a tool/instrument that used to perform [root]
2. prefixing pang and repeating the first syllable of the root; making an action or practice associated with the thing/action expressed by [root]
 
Example of 1:
halo - mix
panghalo - something like a stirring rod
 
Example of 2:
gamot - medicine
panggagamot - practice of medicine
 
But...how about pangungusap?
 
The root here is usap. I can see the pang prefix. I almost want to say this is example 2, but "ung" is more than the first syllable of usap.
 
I would have initially thought then it would be panguusap, but it's not the same thing.
 
Where does the extra ng come from?
Reply
 
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Author Photo AlexXU
Jul 20 2020, 1:36am CST ~ 2 weeks, 1 day ago. 
The NG in PANG/MANG will take the place of the initial consonant of the root.
 
PaNG + Saliksik
-> PaN + Saliksik: because saliksik root starts with an S.
-> Pa + Naliksik: N replaces S
-> Pa + Nanaliksik: redu
-> Pananalisik
 
When a root starts with a vowel, NG will also replace the (inexistent) initial consonant of the root.
PaNG + Usap
-> Pa + NGUsap
-> Pa + Ngungusap: redu
-> Pangungusap
 
But there're exceptions like pang-aawit, when "-" added, the root's (inexistent) initial consonant will not be replaced.
 
There're several PANG-s in Filipino. The pang- in PANGhalo is an instrumental pang-(something used for certain purpose), while the PANG in pangungusap and panggagamot is a general nominal pang- or the noun form of MANG-(verb).
 
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Author Photo simpleauthority
Jul 20 2020, 2:48am CST ~ 2 weeks, 1 day ago. 
@AlexXU Wow, awesome reply. Maraming salamat!
 
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Author Photo AlexXU
Jul 20 2020, 3:16am CST ~ 2 weeks, 1 day ago. 
@simpleauthority Ayos lang : )
 
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Author Photo simpleauthority
Jul 20 2020, 8:34pm CST ~ 2 weeks, 0 days ago. 
@AlexXU A followup if you don't mind:
 
> The NG in PANG/MANG will take the place of the initial consonant of the root.
 
It appears this is a sound change grammar rule and not a general rule (but please correct me!)
 
The only nominal affix rules my grammar book lists for pang are:
1. pang + root: instrumental
2. pang + repeat 1st syllable of root + root: nominal action/practice associated w/ root
 
The only sound changes I can see when using pang are:
1. Change pang to pan when root starts with d, l, r, s, t and sometimes n
2. Change pang to pam when root starts with b or p or sometimes m
 
When combined with nominal pang affix rule 2 (pang + redu + root), then it makes sense with saliksik:
 
pang + saliksik ->
pangsaliksik ->
(redu) pangsasaliksik ->
(sound changes, because saliksik starts with S (sound change rule 1)) pananaliksik
 
But with usap, there is no such sound change rule presented (usap doesn't begin with any of d, l, r, s, t, n, or b, p, or m) so the change would simply be following rule 2 for me:
 
pang + usap ->
pangusap ->
(redu) panguusap
 
I don't know which rule to lean on to know that the "ng" should be in there. I am just trying to justify the spelling of pangungusap using grammar rules.
 
Is it an exception, or is my grammar book missing a rule that I should know?
 
For example, I can justify gamot:
 
pang + gamot ->
panggamot ->
(redu) panggagamot
 
No sound changes there because gamot doesn't start with d, l, r, s, t, n, or b, p, or m.
 
Please help me to justify the rules in use here. Thanks!!
 
These are the grammar articles I'm using:
nominal pang rule 1: learningtagalog.com/ grammar/nouns/noun_a ffixes/pang.html
nominal pang rule 2: learningtagalog.com/ grammar/nouns/noun_a ffixes/pang_rep1.htm l
pang sound changes (bottom two of first box): learningtagalog.com/ grammar/forming_and_ connecting_words/sou nd_changes_when
 
Thanks for your help!
 
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Author Photo AlexXU
Jul 20 2020, 9:47pm CST ~ 2 weeks, 0 days ago. 
@simpleauthority
 
Sorry I forgot to pointed out that
> The NG in nominal PANG- will take the place of the initial consonant of not all, but some of the roots.
 
Please take the sound change and replacement as two processes independent of each other. I'll give more examples to cover all the situations that I can think of:
 
1. no sound change and initial consonant not replaced :
pang + gamot -> panggagamot
pang + gupit -> panggugupit
 
2. root starting with vowel (i.e no sound change) and (inexistent) initial consonant not replaced because of the "-"
pang + away -> pang-aaway
pang + api -> pang-aapi
 
3. sound change but intial consonant not replaced
pang + loko -> panloloko
pang + dukot -> pandudukot
 
4 (compare with situation 1). no sound change and initial consonant replaced:
For all I know, there is no such situation. Correct me if you think of any.
 
5 (compare with sit. 2). roots starting with vowel (i.e no sound change) and (inexistent) initial consonant replaced because there is no "-"
pang + anak -> panganganak
pang + isda -> pangingisda
pang + aso -> pangangaso
pang + usap -> pangungusap
 
6 (compare with sit. 3). sound change and intial consonant replaced
pang + saliksik -> pananaliksik
pang + buhay -> pamumuhay
pang + salita -> pananalita
 
The most difficult and interesting thing here is to remember what will happen to a certain root when combined with the nominal PANG-.
 
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Author Photo akosikoneho Badge: SupporterBadge: Serious SupporterBadge: VIP Supporter
Jul 21 2020, 12:01pm CST ~ 1 week, 7 days ago. 
@AlexXU
 
Great write up! -N in general has a lot of sandhi rules in Tagalog but it was interesting to se paN- laid out this way :D
 
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