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Question: Diphthongs, "sy" and "siy, how to know which to use

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Author Photo by: Tati
Jan 09 2023, 1:59pm CST ~ 4 weeks ago. 
Question: Diphthongs, "sy" and "siy, also dy and diy, how to know which to use?
 
Hello again!
 
I have come across a few words that use these diphthongs in the filipino language. Howeve,r I am confused as to how to know when to use which spelling. Ex. siya (can you spell it sya or would that be incorrect?), or also dyakpat (could it be spelled diyakpat or would this be wrong?). I would like some clarification as to when to know which spelling to use.
 
Thank you!
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Author Photo Juantutri Badge: Native Tagalog Speaker
Jan 11 2023, 10:15pm CST ~ 3 weeks, 6 days ago. 
“Siya” is the standard and only correct spelling. In texting, where anything goes as long as it can be understood, you may encounter “sya” or even “cya”.
 
The traditional Pilipino alphabet (also called “abakada”) only had 20 letters. The letter “J” was not there and “dy” was what we use to imitate its sound. “Dyakpat” is the Pilipino spelling for “jackpot”, “dyanitor” for “janitor”, etc... Now with all the English letters included in the modern Filipino alphabet, it is all right to just spell them as “jackpot” and “janitor”.
 
We have adopted a lot of Spanish words into our vocabulary and the diphthongs “ia” and “io” are quite common in Spanish. Here are some common Tagalog words that are of Spanish origin. The syllables stressed in Tagalog are the same as the default and the indicated stresses in Spanish.
 
Group 1
[SPA] diario/periódico (newspaper) = [TAG] dIYÁryo/perYÓdiko
diamante (diamond) = dIYAmante
dios (god) = dIYÓs
hacienda (country estate) = asYEnda (default stress in Spanish is on the penultimate syllable)
 
Group 2
democracia (democracy) = demokrasYA
iglesia (church) = iglesYA
desgracia (misfortune) = des/disgrasYA (accident, misfortune)
 
Group 3
pacencia (patience) = pasénsIYA
agencia (agency) = ahénsIYA
convulsión (convulsion) = kumbulsIYÓn
 
I am not sure if there are actually spelling rules that we have to follow with regard to the conversion of the diphthongs to Pilipino, but it seems to me that in each group of examples above, these “rules” apply:
 
Group 1 – when the diphthong is on the first syllable or on the stressed syllable, the addition of “y” or the replacement of the first vowel with “y” depends on how the Spanish words are pronounced.
 
Group 2 – when the diphthong is on the last syllable and a) a single consonant precedes the diphthong, “y” replaces the first vowel; and
 
Group 3 – b) when 2 adjacent consonants precede the diphthong, “y” is added between the vowels.
 
There might be exceptions to these, but these “rules” may come in handy in helping you decide. That’s assuming, of course, that you are familiar with the spelling of some Spanish words.
 
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