by: Jimmy329 May 21 2022, 8:18am CST ~ 1 mo., 9 days ago.
Question: Hello, I am trying to learn Tagalog grammar. I have learnt about the aspect of Tagalog verbs, (completed, uncompleted, contemplated) ... but once in a while I have read about another tense, I think it was called "near past" ... and it was formed by prefixing the verb with "ka" ... I cannot find the place again where I read about this ... can anyone give me a clue about the correct terminology and grammar ... and if it is important or not ...
Norvin May 21 2022, 5:03pm CST ~ 1 mo., 8 days ago.
Here's an example of a clause in the "near past" (you also see it called "recent past" or "recent perfective"):
1. Kararating lang namin. "We just arrived"
This form is used to describe things that just happened recently. The verb has a prefix ka-, and you reduplicate the first consonant and vowel of the verb. The new syllable will behave for stress like the reduplicated syllable of the contemplated form.
Sentences with this form of the verb always have 'lang' in them, and they don't (usually) have anything in them that's in the 'ang' form; you can see in 1 that the subject is 'namin', whereas if you had any other form of the verb it'd be 'kami'.
Jimmy329 May 22 2022, 2:30am CST ~ 1 mo., 8 days ago.
Thank you so very much ... this was exactly what I was looking for ! "Recent past" ... the only grammar book, that I found dealing with that topic, stated that they will NOT go into any details about it ...
So I wonder: why do all the grammar books that I use, do not deal with or not even mention that topic ? Is it "obsolete" .... or is is "hardly used" ... or what else is the reason for avoiding it so much .... I think I found real sentences in the net containing e.g. "kakakain", so "recent past" does not seem to be totally irrelevant after all ...
I have added your explanation to my "personal grammar book" ... but maybe you or someone else can explain the background a bit in further detail !
Norvin May 22 2022, 10:06am CST ~ 1 mo., 8 days ago.
@Jimmy329 I don't know why a grammar book would leave it out! Maybe it's just because it's unlike the other verb forms in not having anything in the 'ang' form. As you said, it's not that it's obsolete, or never used.
Googling around to look for examples, I came across something I'd forgotten about, which is that some Tagalog speakers (maybe especially younger speakers, especially in Manila?) will form this kind of the verb by prefixing kaka-, rather than by prefixing ka- and reduplicating the verb. So that kind of speaker might say 'kakarating' rather than 'kararating'. But I am not a native speaker, so we should wait to hear from a real expert about how common that kind of thing is.
@Jimmy329 It is pretty common. If you haven’t gotten familiar with it yet, you should check out the Corpus Tool here on Tagalog.com - it can help you get a feel for frequency of different terms: www.tagalog.com/exam plefinder/index.php
Try searching for…kakagising, kagigising, kakabili, kakagaling, kakaisip, kakauwi, kauuwi, kakabasa, kakakuha, kakanood…many examples there! Often the “kaka-root” version is more common than the “ka-ro-root” version.
Jimmy329 May 27 2022, 2:25am CST ~ 1 mo., 3 days ago.
do I really have to explain it still ? I think @Norvin et al. did a super job in doing so already ! But maybe I can add a few remarks to it now. This is what I found out about it in the meantime:
For some actions there exists the tense "recent past" to indicate, that an action has ended just recently. It is always combined with LANG. The actor requires the NG-case, even though the verb would normally require the ANG-case.
For UM-verbs recent past is formed by prefixing KA and duplicating the first syllable of the root.
Halimbawa: gising - kagígising lang niya (he/she just got up).
For MAG-verbs the root is prefixed with KAPAG.
Halimbawa: mag-aral - kapag-áaral lang ko (I have just finished studying)
For MA-verbs MA will be replaced by PA, so the verb will start with KAPAPA always.
Halimbawa: mamili - kapápamili
Remark: recent past can also be used as a noun, when the effect follows the action immediately.
Halimbawa: Busog na ako sa kakákain ng adobo (I am full now just after eating an adobo)
This is all I found out about "recent past" ... I hope it is all correct. I tried my best, but be aware that I am neither an English nor a Tagalog native speaker. And I am almost sure this is not all that has to be said about the topic, but I am feeling quite comfortable with it now.