I also read ”kung” is used before who, what, when, where, why, how phrases. Halimbawa, hindi ko alam kung paano gamitin ito. Tama ba?
Oo, tama ‘yun. (Yes, that’s right.)
Is it always kung? Never kapag?
It is always “kung” and never “kapag” because “kung” there means something else.
When a Tagalog sentence contains a phrase that begins with an interrogative pronoun (who, what, where, etc.), “kung” is REQUIRED before that pronoun. In such sentences “kung” functions as the preposition “as to/about” and not the conjunction “if”.
Hindi ko alá
m KUNG PAA
. = I don’t know (AS TO) HOW to use this.
Alam mo ba KUNG SINO siyá
? = Do you know (AS TO) WHO he is?
Hindi nila alá
m KUNG KANI
‘yan. = They don’t know (AS TO) WHOSE book that is. (“Kaninong” is “kanino na” where “na” links “whose” to “book” since the ownership of the book is the concern).
bi niya, hindi ko sasabi
hin sa iyo. = (ABOUT) WHAT she told me, I won’t tell you.
ng ako ni John KUNG BA
KIT hindi mo na siya kinakau
sap. = John asked me (ABOUT) WHY you are no longer talking to him.
Also, is the phrase, “kung hindi lang” mean: if it weren’t for?
Yes, it does, but it might be better to use the literal translation of “kung hindi lang (if not only)” as your guide when using it. Translating it as “if it weren’t for” would be a grammatically correct translation, but may only be applicable to a particular Tagalog sentence. Thinking of it instead as the raw “if not only” might make it more adaptable or adjustable to whatever should be its appropriate English translation.
Kung hindi lang kita kaibi
l na kita. 😅 = IF IT WEREN’T FOR the fact that you are my friend, I would have already strangled you. -> IF ONLY you were NOT my friend, I would ...
It seems kapag is used when there is a higher probability …di ba?
Oo. The probability of the “if” happening is more likely when we use “kapag”. That’s why it is more of the “when” than the “if” in “if and when”.